Jumat, 05 Maret 2010

jenis-jenis adverb

Adverbs of Degree

Adverbs of degree atau adverbia tingkatan ini digunakan untuk menunjukkan intensitas atau tingkatan suatu tindakan (verb), sifat (adjective), atau kata keterangan lainnya (another adverb).

Adverbia yang biasa digunakan untuk menyatakan tingkatan ini adalah: almost, nearly, bit, little, fairly, pretty, rather, quite, just, too, slightly, enough, absolutely, really, hardly, scarcely, completely, very, extremely.

Perhatikan contoh berikut:
- Laura is a bit tired. She's been working all morning.
- Mark is quite tired. He's been working all day.
- Sarah is very tired. She's had to work late at the office.

Adverbs of degree di atas menunjukkan tingkatan dari rasa capek atau lelah (tired), apakah sedikit capek, cukup capek, atau sangat capek.

Letak adverbs of degree sebelum adjektiva atau adverbia lain:
- Rita looked rather upset. (sebelum adjektiva)
- This dress is absolutely marvellous. (sebelum adjektiva)
- We go on holiday fairly soon. (sebelum adjektiva)
- United played extremely well. (sebelum adverbia)
- This dress is absolutely marvellous. (sebelum adverbia)

Beberapa adverbs of degree menerangkan verba (diletakkan sebelum verba):
- My foot is really hurting.
- Laura quite enjoys shopping.
- I rather like this cake.

Beberapa adverbs of degree yang terletak diakhir kalimat yang menerangkan verba (a bit, a little, a lot, awfully, much, terribly). Perhatikan contoh berikut ini:
- Mark travels a lot.
- I'll open the window a little.
- The animals suffer terribly.

Adverbia absolutely, completely dan totally bisa diletakkan di tengah atau di akhir kalimat:
- We completely lost our way.
- We lost our way completely.
- I'm afraid I totally disagree.
- I'm afraid I disagree totally.

Contoh lainnya lagi:
- We almost didn’t get there in time.
- I have nearly finished the words for your songs.
- It costs a bit more than I wanted to spend.
- I got paid a little bit of money.
- Both cars are fairly new.
- That performance was pretty impressive.
- He was just leaving when the phone rang.
- I don’t quite know what to do next.
-The walls were not white, but rather a short of dirty grey.
- It’s too late to do anything about it now.
- They will be slightly more expensive but they last a lot longer.
- I hadn’t trained enough for the game.
- It was absolutely pouring with rain.
- I was really fond of Ann.
- We hardly know each other.
- There was scarcely a tree left standing after the storm.
- Portuguese is pronounced completely differently from Spanish.
- At last he had his very own car.
- She found it extremely difficult to get a job.

Seperti halnya adjektiva, adverbia juga mempunyai tingkatan perbandingan yang disebut comparative (–er/more) dan superlative (–est/most).

Adverbs of Frequency

Adverbs of frequency digunakan untuk menyatakan seberapa sering suatu kegiatan dilakukan atau suatu peristiwa terjadi. Adverbia ini menjawab pertanyaan “How often” atau “How frequently” dari suatu kegiatan atau kejadian.

Adverbia yang biasa digunakan adalah: always, frequently, hardly ever, never, occasionally, often, rarely, seldom, sometimes, usually.

Adverbs of frequency umumnya diletakkan sebelum main verb atau sesudah to be, contoh:
- We usually go by car.
- She often works at the weekend.
- There is always some pollution in the air.
- Limestone was frequently used as a building material.
- She hardly ever calls me.
- I sometimes have to work late.
- If something rarely happens, it does not happen very often.
- They seldom watch television these days.

Occasionally, sometimes, often, frequently dan usually bisa juga diletakkan di awal atau di akhir kalimat:
- Sometimes I think she likes me.
- I play badminton occasionally.
- I see her quite often.
Dan pada akhir kalimat kadang-kadang disertai dengan adverbia lain seperti very dan quite.

Rarely and seldom juga dapat diletakkan diakhir kalimat (sering juga disertai very):
- We see them rarely.
- He drinks coffee very seldom.

Berikut di bawah ini adalah urutan adverbs of frequency:











hardly ever



Adverbs of Purpose

Adverbs of purpose adalah adverbia yang umumnya digunakan di akhir kalimat untuk menerangkan maksud atau tujuan suatu tindakan yang dilakukan. Adverbia ini biasa menggunakan konstruksi to + verb.

- She drives her boat slowly to avoid hitting the rocks.
- She shops in several stores to get the best buys.
- Beth swims in the pool every morning to keep in shape.
- Dad walks impatiently into town before supper to get a newspaper.

Adverbs of Certainty

Adverbs of certainty adalah adverbia yang digunakan untuk mengungkapkan (perasaan) kepastian mengenai suatu tindakan atau kejadian.

Kata-kata yang biasa dipakai untuk adverbs of certainty adalah: certainly, definitely, probably, undoubtedly, surely.

Dalam kalimat, adverbs of certainty dapat diletakkan sebelum verba utama (main verb) atau setelah to be, dan antara kata kerja bantu (auxiliary verb) dan verba utama.

Adverbs of certainty yang diletakkan sebelum verba utama atau setelah to be:
- He definitely left the house this morning.
- He is probably in the park.

Adverbs of certainty yang diletakkan antara kata kerja bantu dan verba utama:
- He has certainly forgotten the meeting.
- He will probably remember tomorrow.

Adverbs of certainty juga dapat diletakkan di awal kalimat:
- Undoubtedly, Winston Churchill was a great politician.

Untuk penggunaan surely, jika ditempatkan di awal kalimat berarti bahwa kita berpikir bahwa yang kita bicarakan itu benar, tetapi masih memerlukan konfirmasi akan apa yang kita bicarakan itu, misalnya: Surely you’ve got a car?

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Adverbs of Intensity

Adverbs of intensity adalah adverbia yang digunakan untuk memberi tekanan arti, memperjelas, atau memantapkan suatu kata (verba, adjektiva, adverbia) dalam kalimat.

Berikut adalah adverbia yang sering dipakai untuk menyatakan intensitas:
absolutely, very, too, quite, somewhat, rather, extremely, fairly, more, so, well, pretty, almost, entirely, heartily, literally, for sure, nearly, partially, really, wholly, completely, especially, even, exactly, just, merely, not, only, purely, simply, solely, almost, all but, kind of, sort of, mildly, to some extent.

- This cake is absolutely delicious.
- I was somewhat surprised to see her.
- He looks rather like his father.
- Earthquakes are extremely difficult to predict.
- We will have to leave fairly soon.
- The game was pretty good.
- That is an entirely different matter.
- I heartily agree with her on this.
- There are literally hundreds of prizes to win.
- It is going to be a good day for sure.
- The rooms are simply furnished.
- The school is all but ruined by the storm.
- She was mildly interested.
- He is kind of shy.

Ada juga adverbia yang digunakan untuk memperjelas dengan maksud memberikan contoh atau persamaan suatu benda, misalnya: namely, e.g., for example, as, i.e.
- Three students were mentioned, namely John, Sarah and Sylvia.
- Citrus fruits, e.g. oranges and grapefruit.
- There is a similar word in many languages, for example in French and Italian.
- You can use that glass as a vase.
- The basic essentials of life, i.e. housing, food and water.

Adverbs of Place

Adverbs of place adalah kata keterangan yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan tempat atau arah dimana suatu kejadian terjadi. Dalam kalimat dapat diletakkan setelah verba utama (main verb) atau setelah objek.

Contoh adverbs of place setelah verba utama (after the main verb):
- I looked everywhere.
- John looked away, up, down, around...
- I'm going home, out, back...
- Come in.

Contoh adverbs of place setelah objek (after the object):
- They built a house nearby.
- She took the child outside.

Beberapa adverbs of place juga mempunyai fungsi sebagai prepositions, misalnya: about, across, along, around, behind, by, down, in, off, on, over, round, through, under, up.

Selain itu, adverbs of place juga memiliki kata yang berakhiran –wards yang menunjukkan suatu pergerakan ke arah tertentu, misalnya: backwards, forwards, downwards, upwards, inwards, outwards, northwards, southwards, eastwards, westwards, homewards, onwards.

- I lost my balance and fell backwards.
- The ship turned westwards, away from the coast.

Hati-hati dengan kata towards, meskipun berakhiran –wards, towards bukanlah adverbs of place, melainkan sebuah preposition yang selalu diikuti oleh noun atau pronoun.
- He walked towards the car.
- She ran towards me.

Beberapa adverbs of place menunjukkan pergerakan sekaligus tempat/lokasi, misalnya: ahead, abroad, overseas, uphill, downhill, sideways, indoors, outdoors.
- The child went indoors.
- He lived and worked abroad.
- The ceremony was being held outdoors.
- Chris is going to work overseas.
- The road twists uphill.

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Adverbs of Manner

Adverbs of manner adalah adverbia yang menerangkan tentang cara atau bagaimana sesuatu terjadi. Umumnya adverbs of manner terletak setelah main verb atau setelah objek.

- He speaks English well.
- He ran quickly.
- She spoke softly.
- John coughed loudly to attract her attention.
- She plays the flute beautifully.
- He grabbed the bottle and drank greedily.
- I must study hard.
- He drives the car slowly.
- She moved slowly and spoke quietly.

Sebaiknya tidak meletakkan adverbia di antara verba dan objek:
- He ate greedily the chocolate cake. (salah)
- He ate the chocolate cake greedily. (benar)

Jika ada preposisi sebelum objek, misalnya: at, towards, etc., kita dapat meletakkan adverbia sebelum preposisi atau setelah objek.
- The child ran happily towards his mother.
- The child ran towards his mother happily.

Adakalanya adverbs of manner diletakkan sebelum verba dan objek untuk memberi penekanan pada adverbia tersebut:
- He gently woke the sleeping woman.

Adverbs of manner juga dapat diletakkan di awal kalimat untuk menarik perhatian dan rasa ingin tahu pembaca:
- Slowly she picked up the knife.

(Kata slowly di atas membuat kita ingin tahu apa yang terjadi, siapa yang melakukan itu, dan mengapa harus dilakukan dengan perlahan (slowly))

Sebaiknya, adverbia ini selalu diletakkan sesudah intransitive verbs (verba yang tidak memerlukan objek).
- The town grew quickly
- He waited patiently

Begitu juga dengan adverbia pada umumnya yang hampir selalu diletakkan setelah verba, misalnya: well, badly, hard, fast, etc.

Letak adverbia sangat penting ketika dalam sebuah kalimat ada lebih dari satu verba. Jika terletak setelah klause, maka adverbia itu akan menerangkan seluruh tindakan atau kejadian yang digambarkan pada klausa tersebut.

Perhatikan perbedaan arti diantara kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini:
- She quickly agreed to re-type the letter (=quickly menerangkan verba agreed)
- She agreed to re-type the letter quickly (=quickly menerangkan verba to re-type)
- He quietly asked me to leave the house (=quietly menerangkan verba asked)
- He asked me to leave the house quietly (=quietly menerangkan verba to leave)

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Adverbs of Time

Adverbs of time digunakan untuk menunjukkan kapan (when), seberapa lama (how long) dan seberapa sering (how often) suatu peristiwa terjadi.

when: today, yesterday, later, now, last year
how long: all day, not long, for a while, since last year
how often: sometimes, frequently, never, often, yearly

Adverbia when biasanya diletakkan di akhir kalimat, contoh:
- Mark went to the John’s house yesterday.
- I’m going to tidy my room tomorrow.

Tetapi, adverbia when juga dapat diletakkan di posisi yang lain dalam kalimat untuk memberikan intensitas atau penekanan makna yang berbeda, contohnya:
- Later Mark ate some porridge. (penekanan pada waktu diutamakan)
- Mark later ate some porridge. (bersifat formal seperti halnya sebuah laporan)
- Mark ate some porridge later. (penempatan yang umum digunakan, tidak ada penekanan makna tertentu)

Adverbia how long umumnya diletakkan di akhir kalimat, contoh:
- He stayed in the John’s house all day.
- My father lived in Australia for a year.

Perhatikan, for selalu diikuti oleh ungkapan yang menunjukkan jangka waktu (duration) tertentu, misalnya: for three days, for a week, for several years, for two centuries.

Sedangkan since selalu diikuti oleh ungkapan yang menunjukkan waktu tertentu, misalnya: since Monday, since 1997, since the last war.

Adverbia how often digunakan untuk menyatakan seberapa sering suatu peristiwa dilakukan. Adverbia ini diletakkan sebelum verba utama (main verbs) atau setelah kata kerja bantu (auxiliary verbs) seperti be, have, may, must, etc. Contoh:
- I often eat vegetarian food. (sebelum verba utama)
- He never drinks milk. (sebelum verba utama)
- You must always fasten your seat belt. (setelah kata kerja bantu must)

Adverbia how often lainnya mengungkapkan waktu yang lebih terperinci untuk menggambarkan suatu kejadian dan biasanya diletakkan di akhir kalimat, contoh:
- This magazine is published monthly.
- He visits his mother once a week.

Beberapa adverbia how often diletakkan di akhir kalimat untuk memberikan makna yang lebih kuat.

Bandingkan dua contoh berikut:
- She regularly visits France.
- She visits France regularly.

Kata keterangan atau adverbia yang dapat diletakkan pada dua posisi tersebut adalah: frequently, generally, normally, occasionally, often, regularly, sometimes, usually.

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