Jumat, 05 Maret 2010

adverbs

Viewpoint and Negative Adverbs

Viewpoint adverbs adalah adverbia yang digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pendapat atau sudut pandang, misalnya kata: theoretically, geographically, personally, frankly, economically, politically, financially, confidentially, scholastically, ideally, etc.
Contoh:
- Changes have taken place both economically and politically.
- Geographically, Britain is rather cut off from the rest of Europe.
- He spoke frankly about the ordeal.
- People should, ideally, be persuaded to eat a diet with much less fat or oil.
- Investing all our money in snowmobiles was probably not a sound idea financially.


Sedangkan negative adverbs adalah adverbia yang digunakan untuk menyatakan arti negatif suatu kalimat tanpa menggunakan konstruksi kata negatif seperti no, not, neither, nor, never, misalnya kata: rarely, seldom, hardly, scarcely.
Contoh:
- He seldom visits.
- I can hardly keep my eyes open.
- She is rarely seen in public nowadays.
- I can scarcely believe it.

Sentence Adverbs

Sentence adverbs adalah kata atau frase adverbia yang dipakai untuk memberi pernyataan tentang situasi yang digambarkan dalam suatu kalimat, misalnya kata: certainly, perhaps, luckily, of course, unfortunately, clearly, etc.

Adverbia ini dapat diletakkan di awal, tengah, atau di akhir kalimat. Adakalanya koma digunakan setelah atau sebelum adverbia, terutama yang terletak di awal dan akhir kalimat.
Contoh:
- Clearly, this will cost a lot more than we realized.
- Fortunately, the weather stayed fine.
- Maybe you'll win a free holiday.
- We'll probably have to queue for tickets.
- Rachel was late, of course.

Dalam kalimat negatif, probably dan certainly digunakan sebelum will not, did not, etc.
Contoh:
- We probably won't get there in time.
- I certainly didn't expect a present!

Beberapa sentence adverbs berfungsi menghubungkan antar kalimat, misal: however, accordingly, consequently, hence, moreover, similarly, dan therefore.
Contoh:
- Some of the laws were contradictory. Accordingly, measures were taken to clarify them.
- England played well in the first half. However, in the second half their weaknesses were revealed.
- The cost of transport is a major expense for an industry. Hence factory location is an important consideration.

The Order of Adverbs

Adverbia yang terletak di akhir kalimat, jika lebih dari satu adverbia maka biasanya mempunyai urutan sebagai berikut: (1) manner, (2) place, (3) frequency, (4) time, kemudian (5) purpose. Tetapi urutan ini bisa berubah dan menyesuaikan dengan kondisi kalimat.

Contoh:
- Beth swims (1) enthusiastically (2) in the pool (3) every morning (4) before dawn (5) to keep in shape.
- Dad walks (2) into town (3) every afternoon (4) before supper (5) to get a newspaper.
- They landed (1) safely (2) on a small airfield.
- I always eat (2) here (4) at lunchtime.
- I usually go (2) to bed (4) early.
- Tom came (2) here (4) yesterday.
- My parents moved (2) to London (4) in 1993.

Tetapi seringkali dua frase adverbia di akhir kalimat dapat dipertukarkan letaknya:
- The concert was held at the arts centre last night.
- The concert was held last night at the arts centre.


Adjuncts, Disjuncts, and Conjuncts

Berkenaan dengan posisinya, adverbia sering digunakan untuk memperjelas maksud dari pembicara atau penulis, dan adverbia dapat diletakkan diberbagai posisi yang menyatu yang memberikan makna suatu kalimat. Adverbia yang letaknya menyatu dalam satu kalimat disebut adjuncts. Jika adverbia tidak menyatu dalam kalimat dan dipisahkan dengan tanda koma, maka adverbia itu disebut disjuncts atau conjuncts.

Disjuncts sering digunakan untuk menerangkan keseluruhan kalimat. Meskipun biasa dipakai untuk menerangkan verba, tetapi kita dapat mengatakan bahwa disjuncts menerangkan seluruh kalimat, contoh:
- He has a Mercedes, too.
- He doesn’t want to meet me. I, too, have been afraid to talk to him.

Tetapi too juga bisa menjadi adjuncts, misalnya:
- It’s too hot to play outside.
- I'm not too sure if this is right.

Contoh lain adverbia disjuncts:
- Frankly, Martha, I don't give a hoot.
- Fortunately, no one was hurt.


Sedangkan conjuncts, berfungsi sebagai penghubung, yang menandakan peralihan antara klausa yang satu dengan klausa yang lain:
- If they start smoking those awful cigars, then I’m not staying.
- We’ve told the landlord about this ceiling again and again, and yet he’s done nothing to fix it.

Position of Adverbs

Kata keterangan atau adverbia mempunyai tiga posisi dalam kalimat:

1. Di depan kalimat (sebelum subjek)
- Now we will study adverbs.
- Yesterday she announced that she is quitting her job.

2. Di tengah kalimat (antara subjek atau auxiliary verb dan main verb)
- We often study adverbs.
- You should never take unnecessary risks.

Adverbia di tengah kalimat diletakkan setelah auxiliary verb, dan jika tidak ada auxiliary verb maka adverbia diletakkan sebelum main verb.

3. Di akhir kalimat (sesudah verba atau objek)
- We study adverbs carefully.
- He sat down suddenly.


Catatan

Contoh adverbia dalam kalimat yang diletakkan di tiga posisi:
- Then the ship slowly sailed away.
- Outside it was obviously raining hard.

Perhatikan juga letak adverbia pada kalimat tanya sebagai berikut:
- Has Andrew always liked Jessica?
- Do you often go out in the evening?

Jika terdapat auxiliary verb, adverbia umumnya diletakkan sesudahnya:
- The boss is usually in a bad temper.
- You’re certainly a lot better today.

Jika penekanan makna diberikan pada main verb atau auxiliary verb, maka adverbia biasanya diletakkan sebelumnya:
- You certainly are a lot better today.
- I really have made a mess, haven't I?

Adverbia lazimnya tidak diletakkan diantara verba dan objek langsung. Tetapi, diletakkan setelah objek.
- Tom ate his breakfast quickly. (Bukan: Tom ate quickly his breakfast).
- We played volleyball yesterday. (Bukan: We played yesterday volleyball).
- I like classical music very much. (Bukan: I like very much classical music).

Tetapi, beberapa adverbia dapat diletakkan sebelumnya, terutama sebelum objek dengan penjelasan yang panjang:
- Detectives examined carefully the contents of the dead man’s pockets.
- The snake moved gradually toward its victim.


Order of Adverbs of Time

Jika kita ingin menggunakan lebih dari satu adverb of time di akhir kalimat, maka urutannya adalah sebagai berikut:
1: ‘how long
2: ‘how often
3: ’when'

Contoh:
- I work (1) for five hours (2) every day.
- The magazine was published (2) weekly (3) last year.
- I was abroad (1) for two months (3) last year.
- She worked in a hospital (1) for two days (2) every week (3) last year.

Comparative and Superlative Adverbs

Beberapa bentuk comparative dan superlative pada adverbia sama dengan adjektiva, misalnya: early, fast, hard, high, late, long, near. Keduanya juga menggunakan akhiran –er dan –est untuk membandingkan sesuatu.

Beberapa aturan pembentukan comparative dan superlative adverbs:
1. Tambahkan –er (comparative) dan –est (superlative) pada short adverbs:
- hard – harder - hardest
- late – later - latest
- fast – faster - fastest

Contoh:
- Jim works harder than his brother.
- Everyone in the race ran fast, but John ran the fastest of all.

2. Gunakan more atau less (comparative) dan most atau least (superlative) pada adverbia yang berakhiran –ly.
- quietly - more quietly - most quietly
- slowly - more slowly - most slowly
- seriously - more seriously - most seriously
- confidently – less confidently – least confidently
- skillfully – less skillfully – least skillfully

Contoh:
- The teacher spoke more slowly to help us to understand.
- She worked less confidently after her accident.
- That was the least skillfully done performance I've seen in years.

3. Beberapa adverbia mempunyai bentuk irregular:
- badly – worse - worst
- far - farther/further - farthest/furthest
- little – less - least
- well – better - best

Contoh:
- The little boy ran further than his friends.
- You’re driving worse today than yesterday!


Catatan

Dalam bahasa Inggris informal bentuk perbandingan cheaper, cheapest, louder, loudest, quicker, quickest, slower, slowest lebih sering digunakan daripada more cheaply, the most loudly, etc.
- Mary reacted the quickest.
- You should drive slower in fog.

Kadang-kadang most dapat berarti very yang tentu saja bukan merupakan bentuk perbandingan, contoh:
- We were most grateful for your help
- I am most impressed by this application.

Begitu juga sooner atau more often pada contoh berikut yang bukan sebagai perbandingan:
- Try to get home sooner. (=quickly)
- I must exercise more often. (=many times)


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